F# Namespace, Module & Import

Namespace

A namespace lets you organize code into areas of related functionality by enabling you to attach a name to a grouping of F# program elements. Namespaces are typically top-level elements in F# files.

Namespaces cannot directly contain values and functions. Instead, values and functions must be included in modules, and modules are included in namespaces. Namespaces can contain types, modules.

namespace [rec] [parent-namespaces.]identifier

Modules

A module is a grouping of F# code, such as values, types, and function values, in an F# program. Grouping code in modules helps keep related code together and helps avoid name conflicts in your program.

// Top-level module declaration.
module [accessibility-modifier] [qualified-namespace.]module-name
declarations
// Local module declaration.
module [accessibility-modifier] module-name =
    declarations

Open Declaration

An import declaration specifies a module or namespace whose elements you can reference without using a fully qualified name.

open module-or-namespace-name
open type type-name

Namespace Examples

  • Example 1
namespace Widgets

type MyWidget1 =
    member this.WidgetName = "Widget1"

module WidgetsModule =
    let widgetName = "Widget2"

  • Example 2
namespace Widgets

module WidgetModule1 =
   let widgetFunction x y =
      printfn "Module1 %A %A" x y
module WidgetModule2 =
   let widgetFunction x y =
      printfn "Module2 %A %A" x y

module useWidgets =

  do
     WidgetModule1.widgetFunction 10 20
     WidgetModule2.widgetFunction 5 6


  • Example 3 - Recursive nampespaces
namespace rec MutualReferences

type Orientation = Up | Down
type PeelState = Peeled | Unpeeled

// This exception depends on the type below.
exception DontSqueezeTheBananaException of Banana

type Banana(orientation : Orientation) =
    member val IsPeeled = false with get, set
    member val Orientation = orientation with get, set
    member val Sides: PeelState list = [ Unpeeled; Unpeeled; Unpeeled; Unpeeled] with get, set

    member self.Peel() = BananaHelpers.peel self // Note the dependency on the BananaHelpers module.
    member self.SqueezeJuiceOut() = raise (DontSqueezeTheBananaException self) // This member depends on the exception above.

module BananaHelpers =
    let peel (b: Banana) =
        let flip (banana: Banana) =
            match banana.Orientation with
            | Up ->
                banana.Orientation <- Down
                banana
            | Down -> banana

        let peelSides (banana: Banana) =
            banana.Sides
            |> List.map (function
                         | Unpeeled -> Peeled
                         | Peeled -> Peeled)

        match b.Orientation with
        | Up ->   b |> flip |> peelSides
        | Down -> b |> peelSides

Module Examples

  • Example 1 - Recursive
namespace rec MutualReferences

type Orientation = Up | Down
type PeelState = Peeled | Unpeeled

// This exception depends on the type below.
exception DontSqueezeTheBananaException of Banana

type Banana(orientation : Orientation) =
    member val IsPeeled = false with get, set
    member val Orientation = orientation with get, set
    member val Sides: PeelState list = [ Unpeeled; Unpeeled; Unpeeled; Unpeeled] with get, set

    member self.Peel() = BananaHelpers.peel self // Note the dependency on the BananaHelpers module.
    member self.SqueezeJuiceOut() = raise (DontSqueezeTheBananaException self) // This member depends on the exception above.

module BananaHelpers =
    let peel (b: Banana) =
        let flip (banana: Banana) =
            match banana.Orientation with
            | Up ->
                banana.Orientation <- Down
                banana
            | Down -> banana

        let peelSides (banana: Banana) =
            banana.Sides
            |> List.map (function
                         | Unpeeled -> Peeled
                         | Peeled -> Peeled)

        match b.Orientation with
        | Up ->   b |> flip |> peelSides
        | Down -> b |> peelSides

Open Examples

  • Example 1
// Open a .NET Framework namespace.
open System.IO

// Now you do not have to include the full paths.
let writeToFile2 filename (text: string) =
  let stream1 = new FileStream(filename, FileMode.Create)
  let writer = new StreamWriter(stream1)
  writer.WriteLine(text)

writeToFile2 "file1.txt" "Testing..."