Collection protocols

  • To implement a protocol, objects must support certain operations.
  • Most collections implement container, sized and iterable.
  • All except dict and set are sequences
  • Container: membership testing using in and not in
  • Sized: Determine number of elements with len(s)
  • Iterable: Can produce an iterator with iter(s), e.g.

        for item in iterable:
            do_something(item) `len(s)`
  • Sequence:

    • Retrieve elements by index, e.g. item = seq[index]
    • Find items by value index = seq.index(item)
    • Count items num = seq.count(item)
    • Produce a reversed sequence r = reversed(seq)
  • Set: set algebra operations, including method and infix operators . e.g.

    • subset
    • proper subset
    • equal
    • not equal
    • proper superset
    • superset
    • intersections
    • union
    • symmetric difference
    • difference
  • Built-in collections

Protocol Implementing Collections
Container str, list, range, tuple, set, bytes, dict
Sized str, list, range, tuple, set, bytes, dict
Iterable str, list, range, tuple, set, bytes, dict
Sequence str, list, range, tuple, bytes
Set set
Mutable Sequence list
Mutable Set set
Mutable Mapping dict


  • sortedset

    from bisect import bisect_left
    from import Sequence, Set
    from itertools import chain
    class SortedSet(Sequence, Set):
    def __init__(self, items=None):
        self._items = sorted(set(items)) if items is not None else []
    def __contains__(self, item):
            return True
        except ValueError:
            return False
    def __len__(self):
        return len(self._items)
    def __iter__(self):
        return iter(self._items)
    def __getitem__(self, index):
        result = self._items[index]
        return SortedSet(result) if isinstance(index, slice) else result
    def __repr__(self):
        return "SortedSet({})".format(repr(self._items) if self._items else '')
    def __eq__(self, rhs):
        if not isinstance(rhs, SortedSet):
            return False
        return self._items == rhs._items
    def _is_unique_and_sorted(self):
        return all(self[i] < self[i + 1] for i in range(len(self) - 1))
    def index(self, item):
        assert self._is_unique_and_sorted()
        index = bisect_left(self._items, item)
        if (index != len(self._items)) and self._items[index] == item:
            return index
        raise ValueError("{} not found".format(repr(item)))
    def count(self, item):
        assert self._is_unique_and_sorted()
        return int(item in self._items)
    def __add__(self, rhs):
        return SortedSet(chain(self._items, rhs._items))
    def __mul__(self, rhs):
        return SortedSet(self) if rhs > 0 else SortedSet()
    def __rmul__(self, lhs):
        return self * lhs
    def issubset(self, iterable):
        return self <= SortedSet(iterable)
    def issuperset(self, iterable):
        return self >= SortedSet(iterable)
    def intersection(self, iterable):
        return self & SortedSet(iterable)
    def union(self, iterable):
        return self | SortedSet(iterable)
    def symmetric_difference(self, iterable):
        return self ^ SortedSet(iterable)
    def difference(self, iterable):
        return self - SortedSet(iterable)
  • test case

    import unittest
    from sorted_set import SortedSet
    class TestConstruction(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_empty(self):
        s = SortedSet([])
    def test_from_sequence(self):
        s = SortedSet([7, 8, 3, 1])
    def test_with_duplicates(self):
        s = SortedSet([8, 8, 8])
    def test_from_iterable(self):
        def gen6842():
            yield 6
            yield 8
            yield 4
            yield 2
        g = gen6842()
        s = SortedSet(g)
    def test_default_empty(self):
        s = SortedSet()
    class TestContainerProtocol(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.s = SortedSet([6, 7, 3, 9])
    def test_positive_contained(self):
        self.assertTrue(6 in self.s)
    def test_negative_contained(self):
        self.assertFalse(2 in self.s)
    def test_positive_not_contained(self):
        self.assertTrue(5 not in self.s)
    def test_negative_not_contained(self):
        self.assertFalse(9 not in self.s)
    class TestSizedProtocol(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_empty(self):
        s = SortedSet()
        self.assertEqual(len(s), 0)
    def test_one(self):
        s = SortedSet([42])
        self.assertEqual(len(s), 1)
    def test_ten(self):
        s = SortedSet(range(10))
        self.assertEqual(len(s), 10)
    def test_with_duplicates(self):
        s = SortedSet([5, 5, 5])
        self.assertEqual(len(s), 1)
    class TestIterableProtocol(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.s = SortedSet([7, 2, 1, 1, 9])
    def test_iter(self):
        i = iter(self.s)
        self.assertEqual(next(i), 1)
        self.assertEqual(next(i), 2)
        self.assertEqual(next(i), 7)
        self.assertEqual(next(i), 9)
        self.assertRaises(StopIteration, lambda: next(i))
    def test_for_loop(self):
        index = 0
        expected = [1, 2, 7, 9]
        for item in self.s:
            self.assertEqual(item, expected[index])
            index += 1
    class TestSequenceProtocol(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        self.s = SortedSet([1, 4, 9, 13, 15])
    def test_index_zero(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[0], 1)
    def test_index_four(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[4], 15)
    def test_index_one_beyond_the_end(self):
        with self.assertRaises(IndexError):
    def test_index_minus_one(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[-1], 15)
    def test_index_minus_five(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[-5], 1)
    def test_index_one_before_the_beginning(self):
        with self.assertRaises(IndexError):
    def test_slice_from_start(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[:3], SortedSet([1, 4, 9]))
    def test_slice_to_end(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[3:], SortedSet([13, 15]))
    def test_slice_empty(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[10:], SortedSet())
    def test_slice_arbitrary(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[2:4], SortedSet([9, 13]))
    def test_slice_full(self):
        self.assertEqual(self.s[:], self.s)
    class TestReprProtocol(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_repr_empty(self):
        s = SortedSet()
        self.assertEqual(repr(s), "SortedSet()")
    def test_repr_some(self):
        s = SortedSet([42, 40, 19])
        self.assertEqual(repr(s), "SortedSet([19, 40, 42])")
    if __name__ == '__main__':